Kernel booting process. Part 4.

Transition to 64-bit mode

This is the fourth part of the Kernel booting process where we will see first steps in protected mode, like checking that CPU supports long mode and SSE, paging, initializes the page tables and at the end we will discuss the transition to long mode.

NOTE: there will be much assembly code in this part, so if you are not familiar with that, you might want to consult a book about it

In the previous part we stopped at the jump to the 32-bit entry point in arch/x86/boot/pmjump.S:

jmpl    *%eax

You will recall that eax register contains the address of the 32-bit entry point. We can read about this in the linux kernel x86 boot protocol:

When using bzImage, the protected-mode kernel was relocated to 0x100000

Let's make sure that it is true by looking at the register values at the 32-bit entry point:

eax            0x100000    1048576
ecx            0x0        0
edx            0x0        0
ebx            0x0        0
esp            0x1ff5c    0x1ff5c
ebp            0x0        0x0
esi            0x14470    83056
edi            0x0        0
eip            0x100000    0x100000
eflags         0x46        [ PF ZF ]
cs             0x10    16
ss             0x18    24
ds             0x18    24
es             0x18    24
fs             0x18    24
gs             0x18    24

We can see here that cs register contains - 0x10 (as you will remember from the previous part, this is the second index in the Global Descriptor Table), eip register is 0x100000 and the base address of all segments including the code segment are zero. So we can get the physical address, it will be 0:0x100000 or just 0x100000, as specified by the boot protocol. Now let's start with the 32-bit entry point.

32-bit entry point

We can find the definition of the 32-bit entry point in the arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S assembly source code file:

    __HEAD
    .code32
ENTRY(startup_32)
....
....
....
ENDPROC(startup_32)

First of all, why compressed directory? Actually bzimage is a gzipped vmlinux + header + kernel setup code. We saw the kernel setup code in all of the previous parts. So, the main goal of the head_64.S is to prepare for entering long mode, enter into it and then decompress the kernel. We will see all of the steps up to kernel decompression in this part.

There were two files in the arch/x86/boot/compressed directory:

but we will see only head_64.S because, as you may remember, this book is only x86_64 related; head_32.S is not used in our case. Let's look at arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile. There we can see the following target:

vmlinux-objs-y := $(obj)/vmlinux.lds $(obj)/head_$(BITS).o $(obj)/misc.o \
    $(obj)/string.o $(obj)/cmdline.o \
    $(obj)/piggy.o $(obj)/cpuflags.o

Note $(obj)/head_$(BITS).o. This means that we will select which file to link based on what $(BITS) is set to, either head_32.o or head_64.o. $(BITS) is defined elsewhere in arch/x86/Makefile based on the .config file:

ifeq ($(CONFIG_X86_32),y)
        BITS := 32
        ...
        ...
else
        BITS := 64
        ...
        ...
endif

Now we know where to start, so let's do it.

Reload the segments if needed

As indicated above, we start in the arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S assembly source code file. First we see the definition of the special section attribute before the startup_32 definition:

    __HEAD
    .code32
ENTRY(startup_32)

The __HEAD is macro which is defined in include/linux/init.h header file and expands to the definition of the following section:

#define __HEAD        .section    ".head.text","ax"

with .head.text name and ax flags. In our case, these flags show us that this section is executable or in other words contains code. We can find definition of this section in the arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds.S linker script:

SECTIONS
{
    . = 0;
    .head.text : {
        _head = . ;
        HEAD_TEXT
        _ehead = . ;
    }

If you are not familiar with the syntax of GNU LD linker scripting language, you can find more information in the documentation. In short, the . symbol is a special variable of linker - location counter. The value assigned to it is an offset relative to the offset of the segment. In our case, we assign zero to location counter. This means that our code is linked to run from the 0 offset in memory. Moreover, we can find this information in comments:

Be careful parts of head_64.S assume startup_32 is at address 0.

Ok, now we know where we are, and now is the best time to look inside the startup_32 function.

In the beginning of the startup_32 function, we can see the cld instruction which clears the DF bit in the flags register. When direction flag is clear, all string operations like stos, scas and others will increment the index registers esi or edi. We need to clear direction flag because later we will use strings operations for clearing space for page tables, etc.

After we have cleared the DF bit, next step is the check of the KEEP_SEGMENTS flag from loadflags kernel setup header field. If you remember we already saw loadflags in the very first part of this book. There we checked CAN_USE_HEAP flag to get ability to use heap. Now we need to check the KEEP_SEGMENTS flag. This flag is described in the linux boot protocol documentation:

Bit 6 (write): KEEP_SEGMENTS
  Protocol: 2.07+
  - If 0, reload the segment registers in the 32bit entry point.
  - If 1, do not reload the segment registers in the 32bit entry point.
    Assume that %cs %ds %ss %es are all set to flat segments with
        a base of 0 (or the equivalent for their environment).

So, if the KEEP_SEGMENTS bit is not set in the loadflags, we need to reset ds, ss and es segment registers to a flat segment with base 0. That we do:

    testb $(1 << 6), BP_loadflags(%esi)
    jnz 1f

    cli
    movl    $(__BOOT_DS), %eax
    movl    %eax, %ds
    movl    %eax, %es
    movl    %eax, %ss

Remember that the __BOOT_DS is 0x18 (index of data segment in the Global Descriptor Table). If KEEP_SEGMENTS is set, we jump to the nearest 1f label or update segment registers with __BOOT_DS if it is not set. It is pretty easy, but here is one interesting moment. If you've read the previous part, you may remember that we already updated these segment registers right after we switched to protected mode in arch/x86/boot/pmjump.S. So why do we need to care about values of segment registers again? The answer is easy. The Linux kernel also has a 32-bit boot protocol and if a bootloader uses it to load the Linux kernel all code before the startup_32 will be missed. In this case, the startup_32 will be the first entry point of the Linux kernel right after the bootloader and there are no guarantees that segment registers will be in known state.

After we have checked the KEEP_SEGMENTS flag and put the correct value to the segment registers, the next step is to calculate the difference between where we loaded and compiled to run. Remember that setup.ld.S contains following definition: . = 0 at the start of the .head.text section. This means that the code in this section is compiled to run from 0 address. We can see this in objdump output:

arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux:     file format elf64-x86-64


Disassembly of section .head.text:

0000000000000000 <startup_32>:
   0:   fc                      cld
   1:   f6 86 11 02 00 00 40    testb  $0x40,0x211(%rsi)

The objdump util tells us that the address of the startup_32 is 0 but actually it's not so. Our current goal is to know where actually we are. It is pretty simple to do in long mode because it support rip relative addressing but currently we are in protected mode. We will use common pattern to know the address of the startup_32. We need to define a label and make a call to this label and pop the top of the stack to a register:

call label
label: pop %reg

After this, a register will contain the address of a label. Let's look at the similar code which searches address of the startup_32 in the Linux kernel:

    leal    (BP_scratch+4)(%esi), %esp
    call    1f
1:  popl    %ebp
    subl    $1b, %ebp

As you remember from the previous part, the esi register contains the address of the boot_params structure which was filled before we moved to the protected mode. The boot_params structure contains a special field scratch with offset 0x1e4. These four bytes field will be temporary stack for call instruction. We are getting the address of the scratch field + 4 bytes and putting it in the esp register. We add 4 bytes to the base of the BP_scratch field because, as just described, it will be a temporary stack and the stack grows from top to down in x86_64 architecture. So our stack pointer will point to the top of the stack. Next, we can see the pattern that I've described above. We make a call to the 1f label and put the address of this label to the ebp register because we have return address on the top of stack after the call instruction will be executed. So, for now we have an address of the 1f label and now it is easy to get address of the startup_32. We just need to subtract address of label from the address which we got from the stack:

startup_32 (0x0)     +-----------------------+
                     |                       |
                     |                       |
                     |                       |
                     |                       |
                     |                       |
                     |                       |
                     |                       |
                     |                       |
1f (0x0 + 1f offset) +-----------------------+ %ebp - real physical address
                     |                       |
                     |                       |
                     +-----------------------+

startup_32 is linked to run at address 0x0 and this means that 1f has the address 0x0 + offset to 1f, approximately 0x21 bytes. The ebp register contains the real physical address of the 1f label. So, if we subtract 1f from the ebp we will get the real physical address of the startup_32. The Linux kernel boot protocol describes that the base of the protected mode kernel is 0x100000. We can verify this with gdb. Let's start the debugger and put breakpoint to the 1f address, which is 0x100021. If this is correct we will see 0x100021 in the ebp register:

$ gdb
(gdb)$ target remote :1234
Remote debugging using :1234
0x0000fff0 in ?? ()
(gdb)$ br *0x100022
Breakpoint 1 at 0x100022
(gdb)$ c
Continuing.

Breakpoint 1, 0x00100022 in ?? ()
(gdb)$ i r
eax            0x18    0x18
ecx            0x0    0x0
edx            0x0    0x0
ebx            0x0    0x0
esp            0x144a8    0x144a8
ebp            0x100021    0x100021
esi            0x142c0    0x142c0
edi            0x0    0x0
eip            0x100022    0x100022
eflags         0x46    [ PF ZF ]
cs             0x10    0x10
ss             0x18    0x18
ds             0x18    0x18
es             0x18    0x18
fs             0x18    0x18
gs             0x18    0x18

If we execute the next instruction, subl $1b, %ebp, we will see:

nexti
...
ebp            0x100000    0x100000
...

Ok, that's true. The address of the startup_32 is 0x100000. After we know the address of the startup_32 label, we can prepare for the transition to long mode. Our next goal is to setup the stack and verify that the CPU supports long mode and SSE.

Stack setup and CPU verification

We could not setup the stack while we did not know the address of the startup_32 label. We can imagine the stack as an array and the stack pointer register esp must point to the end of this array. Of course, we can define an array in our code, but we need to know its actual address to configure the stack pointer in a correct way. Let's look at the code:

    movl    $boot_stack_end, %eax
    addl    %ebp, %eax
    movl    %eax, %esp

The boot_stack_end label, defined in the same arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S assembly source code file and located in the .bss section:

    .bss
    .balign 4
boot_heap:
    .fill BOOT_HEAP_SIZE, 1, 0
boot_stack:
    .fill BOOT_STACK_SIZE, 1, 0
boot_stack_end:

First of all, we put the address of boot_stack_end into the eax register, so the eax register contains the address of boot_stack_end where it was linked, which is 0x0 + boot_stack_end. To get the real address of boot_stack_end, we need to add the real address of the startup_32. As you remember, we have found this address above and put it to the ebp register. In the end, the register eax will contain real address of the boot_stack_end and we just need to put to the stack pointer.

After we have set up the stack, next step is CPU verification. As we are going to execute transition to the long mode, we need to check that the CPU supports long mode and SSE. We will do it by the call of the verify_cpu function:

    call    verify_cpu
    testl    %eax, %eax
    jnz    no_longmode

This function defined in the arch/x86/kernel/verify_cpu.S assembly file and just contains a couple of calls to the cpuid instruction. This instruction is used for getting information about the processor. In our case, it checks long mode and SSE support and returns 0 on success or 1 on fail in the eax register.

If the value of the eax is not zero, we jump to the no_longmode label which just stops the CPU by the call of the hlt instruction while no hardware interrupt will not happen:

no_longmode:
1:
    hlt
    jmp     1b

If the value of the eax register is zero, everything is ok and we are able to continue.

Calculate relocation address

The next step is calculating relocation address for decompression if needed. First, we need to know what it means for a kernel to be relocatable. We already know that the base address of the 32-bit entry point of the Linux kernel is 0x100000, but that is a 32-bit entry point. The default base address of the Linux kernel is determined by the value of the CONFIG_PHYSICAL_START kernel configuration option. Its default value is 0x1000000 or 16 MB. The main problem here is that if the Linux kernel crashes, a kernel developer must have a rescue kernel for kdump which is configured to load from a different address. The Linux kernel provides special configuration option to solve this problem: CONFIG_RELOCATABLE. As we can read in the documentation of the Linux kernel:

This builds a kernel image that retains relocation information
so it can be loaded someplace besides the default 1MB.

Note: If CONFIG_RELOCATABLE=y, then the kernel runs from the address
it has been loaded at and the compile time physical address
(CONFIG_PHYSICAL_START) is used as the minimum location.

In simple terms, this means that the Linux kernel with the same configuration can be booted from different addresses. Technically, this is done by compiling the decompressor as position independent code. If we look at arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile, we will see that the decompressor is indeed compiled with the -fPIC flag:

KBUILD_CFLAGS += -fno-strict-aliasing -fPIC

When we are using position-independent code an address is obtained by adding the address field of the command and the value of the program counter. We can load code which uses such addressing from any address. That's why we had to get the real physical address of startup_32. Now let's get back to the Linux kernel code. Our current goal is to calculate an address where we can relocate the kernel for decompression. Calculation of this address depends on CONFIG_RELOCATABLE kernel configuration option. Let's look at the code:

#ifdef CONFIG_RELOCATABLE
    movl    %ebp, %ebx
    movl    BP_kernel_alignment(%esi), %eax
    decl    %eax
    addl    %eax, %ebx
    notl    %eax
    andl    %eax, %ebx
    cmpl    $LOAD_PHYSICAL_ADDR, %ebx
    jge    1f
#endif
    movl    $LOAD_PHYSICAL_ADDR, %ebx
1:
    addl    $z_extract_offset, %ebx

Remember that the value of the ebp register is the physical address of the startup_32 label. If the CONFIG_RELOCATABLE kernel configuration option is enabled during kernel configuration, we put this address in the ebx register, align it to a multiple of 2MB and compare it with the LOAD_PHYSICAL_ADDR value. The LOAD_PHYSICAL_ADDR macro is defined in the arch/x86/include/asm/boot.h header file and it looks like this:

#define LOAD_PHYSICAL_ADDR ((CONFIG_PHYSICAL_START \
                + (CONFIG_PHYSICAL_ALIGN - 1)) \
                & ~(CONFIG_PHYSICAL_ALIGN - 1))

As we can see it just expands to the aligned CONFIG_PHYSICAL_ALIGN value which represents the physical address of where to load the kernel. After comparison of the LOAD_PHYSICAL_ADDR and value of the ebx register, we add the offset from the startup_32 where to decompress the compressed kernel image. If the CONFIG_RELOCATABLE option is not enabled during kernel configuration, we just put the default address where to load kernel and add z_extract_offset to it.

After all of these calculations, we will have ebp which contains the address where we loaded it and ebx set to the address of where kernel will be moved after decompression.

Preparation before entering long mode

When we have the base address where we will relocate the compressed kernel image, we need to do one last step before we can transition to 64-bit mode. First, we need to update the Global Descriptor Table:

    leal    gdt(%ebp), %eax
    movl    %eax, gdt+2(%ebp)
    lgdt    gdt(%ebp)

Here we put the base address from ebp register with gdt offset into the eax register. Next we put this address into ebp register with offset gdt+2 and load the Global Descriptor Table with the lgdt instruction. To understand the magic with gdt offsets we need to look at the definition of the Global Descriptor Table. We can find its definition in the same source code file:

    .data
gdt:
    .word    gdt_end - gdt
    .long    gdt
    .word    0
    .quad    0x0000000000000000    /* NULL descriptor */
    .quad    0x00af9a000000ffff    /* __KERNEL_CS */
    .quad    0x00cf92000000ffff    /* __KERNEL_DS */
    .quad    0x0080890000000000    /* TS descriptor */
    .quad   0x0000000000000000    /* TS continued */
gdt_end:

We can see that it is located in the .data section and contains five descriptors: null descriptor, kernel code segment, kernel data segment and two task descriptors. We already loaded the Global Descriptor Table in the previous part, and now we're doing almost the same here, but descriptors with CS.L = 1 and CS.D = 0 for execution in 64 bit mode. As we can see, the definition of the gdt starts from two bytes: gdt_end - gdt which represents the last byte in the gdt table or table limit. The next four bytes contains base address of the gdt. Remember that the Global Descriptor Table is stored in the 48-bits GDTR which consists of two parts:

  • size(16-bit) of global descriptor table;
  • address(32-bit) of the global descriptor table.

So, we put address of the gdt to the eax register and then we put it to the .long gdt or gdt+2 in our assembly code. From now we have formed structure for the GDTR register and can load the Global Descriptor Table with the lgtd instruction.

After we have loaded the Global Descriptor Table, we must enable PAE mode by putting the value of the cr4 register into eax, setting 5 bit in it and loading it again into cr4:

    movl    %cr4, %eax
    orl    $X86_CR4_PAE, %eax
    movl    %eax, %cr4

Now we are almost finished with all preparations before we can move into 64-bit mode. The last step is to build page tables, but before that, here is some information about long mode.

Long mode

Long mode is the native mode for x86_64 processors. First, let's look at some differences between x86_64 and the x86.

The 64-bit mode provides features such as:

  • New 8 general purpose registers from r8 to r15 + all general purpose registers are 64-bit now;
  • 64-bit instruction pointer - RIP;
  • New operating mode - Long mode;
  • 64-Bit Addresses and Operands;
  • RIP Relative Addressing (we will see an example of it in the next parts).

Long mode is an extension of legacy protected mode. It consists of two sub-modes:

  • 64-bit mode;
  • compatibility mode.

To switch into 64-bit mode we need to do following things:

  • Enable PAE;
  • Build page tables and load the address of the top level page table into the cr3 register;
  • Enable EFER.LME;
  • Enable paging.

We already enabled PAE by setting the PAE bit in the cr4 control register. Our next goal is to build the structure for paging. We will see this in next paragraph.

Early page table initialization

So, we already know that before we can move into 64-bit mode, we need to build page tables, so, let's look at the building of early 4G boot page tables.

NOTE: I will not describe the theory of virtual memory here. If you need to know more about it, see links at the end of this part.

The Linux kernel uses 4-level paging, and we generally build 6 page tables:

  • One PML4 or Page Map Level 4 table with one entry;
  • One PDP or Page Directory Pointer table with four entries;
  • Four Page Directory tables with a total of 2048 entries.

Let's look at the implementation of this. First of all, we clear the buffer for the page tables in memory. Every table is 4096 bytes, so we need clear 24 kilobyte buffer:

    leal    pgtable(%ebx), %edi
    xorl    %eax, %eax
    movl    $((4096*6)/4), %ecx
    rep    stosl

We put the address of pgtable plus ebx (remember that ebx contains the address to relocate the kernel for decompression) in the edi register, clear the eax register and set the ecx register to 6144. The rep stosl instruction will write the value of the eax to edi, increase value of the edi register by 4 and decrease the value of the ecx register by 1. This operation will be repeated while the value of the ecx register is greater than zero. That's why we put 6144 in ecx.

pgtable is defined at the end of arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S assembly file and is:

    .section ".pgtable","a",@nobits
    .balign 4096
pgtable:
    .fill 6*4096, 1, 0

As we can see, it is located in the .pgtable section and its size is 24 kilobytes.

After we have got buffer for the pgtable structure, we can start to build the top level page table - PML4 - with:

    leal    pgtable + 0(%ebx), %edi
    leal    0x1007 (%edi), %eax
    movl    %eax, 0(%edi)

Here again, we put the address of the pgtable relative to ebx or in other words relative to address of the startup_32 to the edi register. Next, we put this address with offset 0x1007 in the eax register. The 0x1007 is 4096 bytes which is the size of the PML4 plus 7. The 7 here represents flags of the PML4 entry. In our case, these flags are PRESENT+RW+USER. In the end, we just write first the address of the first PDP entry to the PML4.

In the next step we will build four Page Directory entries in the Page Directory Pointer table with the same PRESENT+RW+USE flags:

    leal    pgtable + 0x1000(%ebx), %edi
    leal    0x1007(%edi), %eax
    movl    $4, %ecx
1:  movl    %eax, 0x00(%edi)
    addl    $0x00001000, %eax
    addl    $8, %edi
    decl    %ecx
    jnz    1b

We put the base address of the page directory pointer which is 4096 or 0x1000 offset from the pgtable table in edi and the address of the first page directory pointer entry in eax register. Put 4 in the ecx register, it will be a counter in the following loop and write the address of the first page directory pointer table entry to the edi register. After this edi will contain the address of the first page directory pointer entry with flags 0x7. Next we just calculate the address of following page directory pointer entries where each entry is 8 bytes, and write their addresses to eax. The last step of building paging structure is the building of the 2048 page table entries with 2-MByte pages:

    leal    pgtable + 0x2000(%ebx), %edi
    movl    $0x00000183, %eax
    movl    $2048, %ecx
1:  movl    %eax, 0(%edi)
    addl    $0x00200000, %eax
    addl    $8, %edi
    decl    %ecx
    jnz    1b

Here we do almost the same as in the previous example, all entries will be with flags - $0x00000183 - PRESENT + WRITE + MBZ. In the end, we will have 2048 pages with 2-MByte page or:

>>> 2048 * 0x00200000
4294967296

4G page table. We just finished to build our early page table structure which maps 4 gigabytes of memory and now we can put the address of the high-level page table - PML4 - in cr3 control register:

    leal    pgtable(%ebx), %eax
    movl    %eax, %cr3

That's all. All preparation are finished and now we can see transition to the long mode.

Transition to the 64-bit mode

First of all we need to set the EFER.LME flag in the MSR to 0xC0000080:

    movl    $MSR_EFER, %ecx
    rdmsr
    btsl    $_EFER_LME, %eax
    wrmsr

Here we put the MSR_EFER flag (which is defined in arch/x86/include/uapi/asm/msr-index.h) in the ecx register and call rdmsr instruction which reads the MSR register. After rdmsr executes, we will have the resulting data in edx:eax which depends on the ecx value. We check the EFER_LME bit with the btsl instruction and write data from eax to the MSR register with the wrmsr instruction.

In the next step, we push the address of the kernel segment code to the stack (we defined it in the GDT) and put the address of the startup_64 routine in eax.

    pushl    $__KERNEL_CS
    leal    startup_64(%ebp), %eax

After this we push this address to the stack and enable paging by setting PG and PE bits in the cr0 register:

    movl    $(X86_CR0_PG | X86_CR0_PE), %eax
    movl    %eax, %cr0

and execute:

lret

instruction. Remember that we pushed the address of the startup_64 function to the stack in the previous step, and after the lret instruction, the CPU extracts the address of it and jumps there.

After all of these steps we're finally in 64-bit mode:

    .code64
    .org 0x200
ENTRY(startup_64)
....
....
....

That's all!

Conclusion

This is the end of the fourth part linux kernel booting process. If you have questions or suggestions, ping me in twitter 0xAX, drop me email or just create an issue.

In the next part, we will see kernel decompression and much more.

Please note that English is not my first language and I am really sorry for any inconvenience. If you find any mistakes please send me PR to linux-insides.

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